The determination of specific antibodies against Echinococcus is used for the laboratory diagnosis of echinococcosis.
Echinococcosis, also referred to as hydatidosis or bladder hydatid cyst, is a parasitic infection common among patients who come into contact with sheep or bovine animals and affect more than 1 million people worldwide. Echinococcus species are tapeworms and the two most important species that infect humans are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis.
In terms of geographical distribution, Echinococcus granulosus can be found all over the world, in rural areas where dogs can feed on dead infected sheep or cattle while Echinococcus multilocularis is found mainly in the northern hemisphere. The final hosts for E. granulosus are dogs or other canines and the final hosts for E. multilocularis are foxes and to a lesser extent, other canines. Adult Echinococcus worms are located in the small intestine of the final hosts and release their eggs that pass into the faeces and which can be ingested by a vector, usually sheep or cattle in the case of E. granulosus or small rodents in the case of E. multilocularis. Eggs hatch in the small intestine releasing the echinococcus that penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate through the circulatory system to various organs where the cysts develop. The final host becomes infected after ingestion of these infectious cysts. People become infected accidentally after ingestion of Echinococcus eggs.
In humans, E. granulosus cysts usually develop in the lungs and liver, and the infection may remain silent or latent for years (5-20 years) before bladder size increases and symptoms appear. Symptomatic manifestations include chest pain, haemoptysis and cough in the case of pulmonary involvement and abdominal pain and obstruction of the bile duct in the case of liver infection. E. multilocularis infection occurs more rapidly than E. granulosus and manifests with abdominal pain and biliary obstruction. Bladder rupture can cause fever, urticaria and anaphylactic shock.
Diagnosis of echinococcal infections is based on characteristic findings by ultrasound or other imaging techniques and serological testing. It is important that infected people do not lay eggs in the stool.
Surgical resection of the bladder is the treatment of choice. Bladder removal does not dramatically reduce the titer of antibodies that can persist for years.
False-positive results may occur in patients with a history of cirrhosis, collagen disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, or schistosomiasis.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.