Urine glucose measurement is used as an additional test in the control of diabetes mellitus.
Under normal conditions, glucose is readily filtered through the renal glomerulus
and then the filtered glucose is absorbed by the proximal epithelial renal tubule. Essentially, in normal conditions it does not excrete any glucose in the urine. However, the ability of the proximal tubule to reabsorb glucose is limited. If the amount of filtration exceeds the proximal tubule's absorption capacity, a portion of the filtered glucose will be excreted in the urine. Thus, elevated blood glucose levels (such as diabetes mellitus) in the blood can lead to an increase in filtered glucose well beyond the ability of the tubules to reabsorb, resulting in glucosuria. Glucosuria occurs when the renal threshold for glucose is exceeded (typically occurs when the blood glucose concentration is greater than 180 mg / dL). This happens most often, though not exclusively, in diabetes.
In addition, conditions which adversely affect the functioning of the proximal tubule can also lead to reduced glucose uptake and increased urine glucose concentration, even with normal blood glucose concentrations. Some of these conditions include Fanconi syndrome, Wilson's disease, hereditary glucosuria and interstitial nephritis. However, these conditions are relatively rare and the most frequent cause of elevated glucose concentration in the urine is elevated blood glucose levels.
Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
- Increase: Adrenal Disorders, Central Nervous System Disorders, Diabetes Mellitus, Eclampsia, Fanconi Syndrome, Glomerulonephritis, Glucose Administration, Heavy Metal Poisoning, Liver Disease, Interstitial Hyperactivity, Intestinal Motility Medications: Ammonium Chloride, Asparaginase, Carbamazepine, Corticosteroids, Dextrothyroxine, Indomethacin, Isoniazid, Lithium Carbonate, Nicotinic Acid, Phenothiazines, Thiazide Diuretics
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.