Blood phosphorus measurement is used to diagnose and monitor many pathological conditions related to bones, kidneys and arthritis.
Most of the phosphorus (P, PO4, inorganic phosphate) in the body is bound together with calcium in the bones. About 15% of the phosphorus is present in the blood, making it the major anion of the intracellular environment. It has various functions, including its role in glucose and lipid metabolism, the storage and transfer of energy within the body, the creation of bone tissue, and the maintenance of acid-base balance. Phosphorus is absorbed into the small intestine with the help of vitamin D. Like calcium, phosphorus is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH). It has an inverse relationship with calcium: an increase in the serum of one causes the kidneys to excrete the other. Parathyroid hormone increases the release of calcium and phosphorus from the bones and reduces calcium excretion and increases the excretion of phosphorus in the urine.
An increase in serum phosphorus concentration is known as hypophosphatemia while a decrease in its concentration is known as hypophosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with low calcium levels and has symptoms such as tetanus, arrhythmias and seizures. Hypophosphatemia is associated with muscle weakness, encephalopathy, poor platelet function, decreased cardiac contractility and paresthesias.
Phosphorus-rich foods include beans, chicken, eggs, fish, milk, and dairy products.
Possible Interpretation of Pathological Values
- Increase: Acromegaly, acute or chronic kidney disease, bone tumors or metastases, diabetic ketoacidosis, bone fracture healing, hyperthyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, lactic and respiratory acidosis, leukemia (myelogenesis), myelogenesis, blood myelogenesis, metastatic bone tumors, milk-alkali syndrome (Burnett), multiple myeloma, portal cirrhosis, Paget's disease, pseudo-hypothyroidism, pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis, sickle cell anemia, renal anemia , Secondary to hypoparathyroidism, uremia, toxicity of vitamin D. Medications: Androgens, beta-adrenergic blockers, chemotherapy, diphosphate, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), furosemide (Lasix), growth hormone, hydrochlorothiazide, methicillin, parathyroid hormone, phenytoin, phosphate enemas, misuse phosphates, steroids, tetracycline-containing laxatives (nephrotoxicity)
- Decrease: Alcoholism, burns (diuretic phase), Crohn's disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, dialysis, Fanconi syndrome, gout, hypercalcaemia (severe), hyperinsulinemia, hyperparathyroidism, hypokalaemia, hypomagnesemia, respiratory alkalosis, rickets (primary or familial hypophosphatemia), salicylate poisoning, septicemia (Gram-negative bacteria), celiac disease, vitamin D deficiency: Medications: Albuterol, acetamolamide, anesthetics, antacids, carbamazepine, calcitonin, corticosteroids, diuretics, epinephrine, estrogens, glucagon, glucocorticoids, glucose (intravenously), insulin, isoniazid, magnesium hydroxide, oral contraceptives, phenytoin
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.