Serological screening for polioviruses is used to diagnose possible infection as well as to determine immunization after vaccination.
Polio viruses are the causative agent of polio, are enteroviruses, and are members of the Picornaviridae family. Polio viruses consist of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. There are 3 serotypes of the virus with slight differences in capsid, PV1, PV2, and PV3. The most common is PV1.
Polio is a highly contagious systemic infection that results in necrotic and inflammatory lesions of the motor and autonomic neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Polio usually manifests as systemic viremia with headache, fever, vomiting, and back and neck pain, and progresses to serious paralysis and possibly death. Viruses are transmitted by eating contaminated water or food. The viruses are incubated and replicated in the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, Payer plaques, pharynx, and digestive tract. Polio enteroviruses are excreted in the faeces and can remain active outside human cells for several months.
The incubation period for polio is 5-35 days, with acute symptoms occurring 7-12 days after exposure to the virus. The test should be performed on blood samples from both the acute phase and sequential blood samples during the course of the disease, to identify possible increases in antibody titers.
Type 1 Poliovirus is associated with paralysis, chronic cardiomyopathy, diabetes, fetal malformation, myocarditis and pericarditis. Oral vaccines available since 1950 have reduced the incidence of the disease worldwide. A worldwide polio eradication initiative launched in 1998 has reduced new cases worldwide by more than 99%.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies (titers> 1: 8 to> 1: 128) against polioviruses indicates lifelong immunity. Neutralizing antibodies are specific for each type. Antibodies against one type do not provide immunity to another.
The test no longer includes antibodies to PV2.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.