Molecular testing for Shigella is used for laboratory documentation of infections by this particular germ.
The genus Shigella is composed of four different Gram-negative bacteria and is divided into four groups. Shigella species have genomes ranging in size from 4.4 Mbp to 4.8 Mbp (million base pairs) arranged in a circular formation and are the causative agents of Shigellosis disease.
The species of the genus Shigella infect the intestinal epithelial M cells and then release proteins into the host cell. The spread of bacteria between cells results in degradation of the intestinal epithelium.
Infection with Shigella species results in symptoms such as fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, resulting from inflammation of the colon and intestinal tract. Very serious symptoms can be treated with antibiotics and hydration.
Shigella dysenteriae is the type of serogroup A that causes dysentery in many developing countries. Serum B consists of serotypes of Shigella flexneri found in developing countries and serotype C includes Shigella boydi which is restricted to India. These three species resemble their normal functions, whereas the Shigella sonnei of Group D found in developed countries are genetically more diverse.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.