Urine testing is a frequently performed screening test and provides an overview of the overall state of the patient's health as well as the health of the urinary tract.
The method used for urine analysis is the one with the reagent impregnated strip - indicators for measuring pH, specific gravity, sugar, albumin (protein), ketones, hemoglobin, urinary cholinergic, bilirubin, nitrite and leukocyte esterase. The sample is also centrifuged, and the precipitate is examined microscopically to determine the presence and type of cells, cylinders, crystals and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.
The color of the urine should be related to the specific gravity. That is, sparse urine of low specific gravity should be almost colorless while concentrated urine of high specific gravity should be dark yellow. Urine glucose content should also be positively correlated with specific gravity. The pH should be inversely correlated with the levels of ketone (acetone).
A sweet or fruity urine odor indicates the presence of ketones in the sample. A fish odor or a foul odor indicates a urinary tract infection. An odor like maple syrup may indicate the corresponding disease "Maple syrup urine disease". A particularly mold-like urine odor can be caused by recent consumption of asparagus.
The increase in the observed epithelial cells may signal an inflammatory process in the kidneys. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) that may be present in the urine indicate damage to the renal glomeruli. Elevated levels of leukocytes (blood cells) indicate inflammation or infection in the urinary tract and indicate the need for urine culture. Crystals may form at room temperature after the sample is taken and before the test is performed or may be caused by various drugs.
Pathological results should be confirmed by more specific or quantitative tests.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.