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Angina, Genetic Testing

Angina is chest pain or discomfort caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. It is often a symptom of underlying coronary artery disease and is usually caused by physical exertion or stress. Treatment includes medications to relieve pain, lifestyle modifications, and interventions such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart. The assessment of the Polygenic Risk Score for angina pectoris is based on examining 44 gene polymorphisms.

Genetic testing for angina pectoris is included along with 14 other diseases in the Genetic Screening for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases, Polygenic Risk Score.

Causes and non-genetic risk factors

The most common cause is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which does not receive sufficient oxygen supply (ischemia). This is most commonly caused by atheromatous plaques or atherosclerosis inside the arteries that narrow them.

The following risk factors have been identified in angina pectoris:

  • Age, as it is more common after the age of 60.
  • Family and personal history of coronary disease.
  • Smoking can weaken the walls of the arteries.
  • Diabetes is a disease that can accelerate atherosclerosis if not adequately controlled.
  • Hypertension, which, if maintained over time, can damage the arteries.
  • High cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Obesity and overweight.
  • Certain medical conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, or metabolic syndrome.
  • Stress.

The symptoms of angina pectoris may vary depending on the type. Among them are stable angina (angina pectoris), the most common type in which symptoms appear during physical activity; unstable angina, which occurs at rest and is a medical emergency; variant angina (Prinzmetal) caused by spasms of the coronary arteries; and refractory angina with recurrent symptomatic episodes.

The main symptom of angina pectoris is pain or discomfort in this area, although it can also cause the following symptoms:

  • Burning
  • Pressure or squeezing pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder, and/or back.
  • Dizziness and fatigue
  • Nausea and abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating

The leading cause of angina pectoris is the presence of atheroma plaques in the walls of the blood vessels, so the best way to prevent it is to reduce the factors that favor its appearance. Among them:

  • Avoid smoking
  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Regular physical exercise
  • Losing weight if necessary
  • Properly control other conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia.
  • Reduce stress
Additional information
Results Time4 - 5 Weeks
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