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Complement Component C2, Serum

The measurement of serum complement component C2 is used to diagnose deficiency of component C2 and to screen patients with deficient total complement concentration.

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The complement system consists of several proteins that, when activated, serve to enhance an immune response. Complement proteins make up 10% of serum globulins. Activation of the complement system leads to the destruction of potentially inflammatory mediators, facilitates opsonization and clearance of the particles, and can lead to the immediate dissolution of altered cells of the organism and microorganisms. The complement system can be activated by numerous immune and non-immune stimuli. Activation of the complement occurs either in the classic or alternative pathways. The components of C1-C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, and C4 are activated by the classic pathway, which is stimulated when an antigen-antibody reaction occurs. The components of the alternative pathway, C3, properdin, and factor D, may be induced by mechanisms other than antigen-antibody reactions.

Concentrations of components C3 and C4 are most commonly used to evaluate the integrity of the classic and alternative pathways. Levels of other individual components of the complement can be used to monitor autoimmune activities and to identify genetic deficiencies of individual components.

Identifying the components of the complement helps diagnose the genetic defects of individual components and the diseases mediated by the immune system. Component C1q is higher in Alzheimer's disease, and component C4 is increased during occupational exposure to styrene. The determination of the components of the complement is also helpful in acute vascular rejection, cerebral palsy, chronic renal failure, hereditary angioedema, xenograft rejection, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and common pemphigus.

The absence of component C5 and, at the same time, typical concentrations of C3 and C4 components mean C5 deficiency. The absence of the C5 component and low concentrations of the C3 and C4 components indicate the complement consumption.



Important Note

Laboratory test results are crucial for diagnosing and monitoring all pathological conditions. 70% and 80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased."

Laboratory test results should not be interpreted solely based on the numerical result of a single analysis. They should be interpreted concerning each case, family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your physician should explain the importance of your test results.

At Diagnostiki Athinon, we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and contact your doctor to ensure you receive the best possible medical care.

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