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GastroPanel, Gastritis Test

GastroPanel® is a blood test that assesses several biomarkers related to gastrointestinal health. It provides valuable information for diagnosing and managing gastrointestinal conditions, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer risk. The test measures the levels of specific biomarkers in the blood, including pepsinogen I (PGI), pepsinogen II (PGII), gastrin-17 (G-17), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies.

  • Pepsinogen I (PGI): Pepsinogen I is an enzyme produced by the stomach lining cells (chief cells). Its levels in the blood can indicate the functional status of gastric mucosa. Lower-than-normal levels of PGI may suggest chronic atrophic gastritis, a condition where the stomach lining is inflamed and has lost cells, which can increase the risk of gastric cancer.
  • Pepsinogen II (PGII): PGII is another enzyme the stomach lining cells produce. The ratio of PGI to PGII (PGI/PGII ratio) indicates the severity of gastric mucosal damage. A decreased ratio may indicate atrophic gastritis or gastric mucosal damage.
  • Gastrin-17 (G-17): Gastrin-17 is a hormone the stomach produces that regulates gastric acid secretion. Elevated levels of G-17 may indicate hypergastrinemia, which can occur in conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastrinomas, or chronic acid suppression therapy.
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Antibodies: H. pylori is a bacterium that infects the stomach lining and is a major cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers. Testing for H. pylori antibodies can help diagnose active or past H. pylori infection.
Clinical Applications

Diagnosis of Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers: GastroPanel® can help diagnose gastritis and peptic ulcers by assessing the levels of pepsinogens and gastrin in the blood. Abnormal levels of these biomarkers can indicate mucosal damage or inflammation.

Evaluation of Gastric Cancer Risk: GastroPanel® can help assess the risk of gastric cancer by detecting atrophic gastritis, a precursor condition to gastric cancer. Lower levels of PGI and the PGI/PGII ratio are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer.

Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection: GastroPanel® includes testing for H. pylori antibodies, which can help diagnose active or past H. pylori infection. This information is crucial for guiding treatment decisions, such as antibiotic therapy for H. pylori eradication.

Monitoring Gastric Mucosal Health: GastroPanel® can monitor changes in gastric mucosal health over time, especially in patients at increased risk of developing gastric cancer or those undergoing long-term acid suppression therapy.

GastroPanel® is a valuable diagnostic tool that provides comprehensive information about the functional status of the stomach lining and can assist healthcare providers in diagnosing and managing various gastrointestinal conditions.

GastroPanel® is often used in the assessment of dyspeptic symptoms (such as indigestion or abdominal pain), evaluation of atrophic gastritis, and monitoring of patients at risk of gastric cancer. It provides a non-invasive alternative to traditional methods like endoscopy for evaluating the gastric mucosa.

GastroPanel® is intended as the first-line diagnostic test for dyspeptic complaints to detect Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (mucosal atrophy) caused by helicobacter or autoimmune disease, disclose the associated risks like gastric and esophageal cancer as well as malabsorption of B12 vitamin, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and certain medicines. The use of GastroPanel® examination is also recommended in health control because helicobacter infection and particularly atrophic gastritis are, in most cases, asymptomatic. Autoimmune diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis) are not infrequently associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis. GastroPanel®-disclosed i) symptomatic helicobacter infection after eradication attempt, ii) atrophic gastritis, or iii) symptomatic high acid output are indications of gastroscopy with targeted biopsies.

Anacidic stomach

An anacidic stomach can result in a variety of non-specific symptoms similar to heartburn. Other symptoms include stomach pressure and pains, gas, and burping, which may occur during meals. However, an individual with an anacidic stomach can also be asymptomatic, or they may find it challenging to recognize stomach symptoms as unusual, especially if the condition has persisted for a long time.

Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may cause an anacidic stomach. PPI medicines effectively prevent the normal functioning of gastric-acid-secreting cells and thus eliminate the feeling of heartburn. The disadvantage is that the natural function of stomach acid and its function as a stomach protector are lost. Short-term use of PPIs is safe, but long-term use has problems. If you use PPI medicine regularly for heartburn, it would be wise to find out the real cause of the heartburn.

Some stomachs are irritated by acidic juices, coffee, or alcohol. Thus, it is better to avoid these. If a weak esophageal valve causes heartburn, surgery is the treatment.

Gastric mucosal atrophy 

Gastric mucosal atrophy and its possible consequences, such as vitamin B12 malabsorption and micronutrient malabsorption, are often asymptomatic. If the atrophy is caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, symptoms may occur as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and reflux, but H. pylori infection may also be asymptomatic.

Gastric mucosal atrophy, or atrophic gastritis (AG), may be due to either H. pylori infection or an autoimmune disease, such as celiac disease or type 1 diabetes. Severe atrophy causes an anacidic stomach. AG can lead to co-morbidities such as iron deficiency or pernicious anemia due to iron and vitamin B12 malabsorption. It also increases the risk of stomach cancer.

GastroPanel® is a unique blood test for diagnosing vague upper abdominal pain.

Results indicate the status of your stomach health and the need for any follow-up activities. The test provides information on the possibility of impaired acid secretion and the associated risks, as well as the recommendation for H. pylori eradication treatment or gastroscopy if necessary.

A typical GastroPanel® result shows that the gastric mucosa is working correctly and is healthy and that the stomach troubles are functional or due to other reasons.

If the GastroPanel® test result is abnormal, discuss the results with your doctor to arrange appropriate follow-up activities and the possible need for gastroscopy. If all the other markers are typical, but the test finds H. pylori, discuss eradication treatment with your doctor.

If the test result refers to mucosal atrophy, gastroscopy is always recommended to investigate the severity of the condition. Sometimes, the findings refer to a decreased gastric acid secretion due to PPI treatment. In this case, the results from a repeat test will be average when there is a two-week break from PPI medicines. If the GastroPanel® test indicates increased acid secretion, the test result will normalize after two weeks of PPI treatment.

The GastroPanel® test classifies the findings into one of five diagnostic options:

  1. Ηealthy stomach
  2. H. pylori infection
  3. Atrophic gastritis in the antrum (lower part of the stomach)
  4. Atrophic gastritis in the corpus (upper part of the stomach)
  5. Atrophic gastritis affecting the whole stomach

In addition, the level of acid secretion is reported as normal, low, or elevated.


Gastroscopy involves passing a thin, flexible endoscope with a built-in camera through the mouth and into the esophagus to examine the esophagus, the stomach, and the first part of the small intestine. Unlike the blood-sample-based GastroPanel®, gastroscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure. If the GastroPanel® test finds an anacidic stomach, it does not necessarily require an endoscopy because the reason for an anacidic stomach may be caused by PPI medication.

GastroPanel® is a registered trademark of Biohit, Finland.

Additional information
Results Time10 Days
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