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Glucose, Serum

Blood sugar measurement is used to diagnose and monitor the management of diabetes mellitus and other disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cancer.

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Sugar or glucose is a monosaccharide found naturally in fruits. It is also formed by the digestion of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen by the liver and is the body's primary source of cellular energy. Glucose is essential for brain and red blood cell function. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells.

Hormones that affect glucose metabolism include insulin, glucagon, thyroxine, somatostatin, cortisol, and epinephrine. Measuring fasting blood sugar levels is used to diagnose diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Testing for sugar in a random blood sample is usually done for the non-specific assessment of carbohydrate metabolism.

Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
  • Increase: Acromegaly, anesthesia, burns, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, convulsions, Cushing's disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus, eclampsia, encephalitis, erectile dysfunction, gigantism, hemochromatosis, hemorrhage, hyperosmotic hyperglycemic non-ketotic coma, hyperthyroidism, hyperpituitarism, hypertension, hypervitaminosis A (chronic), infections, injury, malnutrition (chronic), meningitis, myocardial infarction, obesity, pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatitis (chronic), pheochromocytoma, pituitary adenoma, pregnancy, shock, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stress, Wernicke encephalopathy. Medications: Anabolic steroids, androgens, arginine, ascorbic acid, asparaginase, aspirin, atenolol, baclofen, benzodiazepines, bisacodyl (prolonged use), chlorpromazine, chlorthalidone, cimetidine, clonidine, corticosteroids, corticotropin, dextran, dextrothyroxine, diazoxide ical disopyramide, epinephrine, epinephrine bitartrate, epinephrine borate, epinephrine hydrochloride, estrogen, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, glucose infusions, haloperidol, imipramine, isoproterenol hydrochloride, heparin, hydralazine hydrochloride, hydrochlorothiazide, levodopa, levothyroxine, lithium carbonate , magnesium hydroxide (extend high dose use), meperidine, mercaptopurine, methimazole, methyldopa, metronidazole, nalidixic acid, niacin, nicotine, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives, oxazepam, p-aminosalicylic acid, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, progestins, promethazine hydrochloride, propranolol (in diabetic patients), propylthiouracil, protease inhibitors, reserpine, rifampicin, risperidone, ritodrine hydrochloride, sildenafil, terbutaline sulfate, tetracyclines, thiazides/thiazide diuretics, thyroglobulin, thyroid medications, tolbutamide, triamterene
  • Decrease: Addison's disease, adrenal medulla unresponsiveness, alcoholism, cancer (adrenal, gastric, fibrosarcoma), cirrhosis, cretinism, diabetes mellitus (early), exercise, fever, Forbes disease (glycogen storage disease type III), fructose intolerance, galactosemia, glucagon deficiency, hepatic phosphorylase deficiency (glycogen storage disease type VI), hepatitis, hyperinsulinemia, hypopituitarism, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, infant of diabetic mother, insulin overdose (plasma hypoglycemia), insulinoma, kwashiorkor, leucine sensitivity, malnutrition, odorous urine disease like maple syrup, muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency (glycogen storage disease type VII), myxedema, pancreatic islet cell tumors, pancreatitis, postoperative (after gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy), postprandial hypoglycemia, Reye's syndrome, Simmonds disease, vomiting, von Gierke disease (storage disease glycogen type I), Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Zetterstrom syndrome. Medications: Paracetamol, allopurinol, amphetamines, aspirin, atenolol, beta-adrenergic blockers, caffeine, cerivastatin, chlorpropamide, clofibrate, disodium edetate, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), gatifloxacin, guanethidine sulfate, isoniazid, insulin, isocarboxazid, marijuana, nitrazepam not, by mouth hypoglycemic agents, p-aminosalicylic acid, pargyline hydrochloride, phenacetin, phenazopyridine, phenelzine sulfate, phenformin, propranolol (in diabetics), tetracyclines, theophylline, tranylcypromine sulfate
Important Note

Laboratory test results are the most critical parameter for diagnosing and monitoring all pathological conditions. 70% and 80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased."

Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be analyzed based on each case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your physician should explain the importance of your test results.

At Diagnostiki Athinon, we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and contact your doctor to ensure you receive the best possible medical care.

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