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Glucose, Urine

Urine glucose measurement is used as an additional test to control diabetes mellitus.

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Under normal conditions, glucose is readily filtered by the renal glomeruli, and then the filtered glucose is reabsorbed by the proximal renal tubules. Under normal conditions, no glucose is excreted in the urine. However, the ability of the proximal convoluted tubule to reabsorb glucose is limited. If the amount filtered exceeds the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubule, a portion of the filtered glucose will be excreted in the urine. Thus, elevated glucose levels (as in diabetes mellitus) in the blood may increase filtered glucose far beyond the tubular reabsorption capacity, resulting in glycosuria. Glycosuria occurs when the renal threshold for glucose is exceeded (typically when the blood glucose concentration is greater than 180 mg/dL). This happens most often, although not exclusively, in diabetes mellitus.

In addition, conditions that adversely affect the function of the proximal convoluted tubule can also lead to reduced glucose reabsorption and increased urinary glucose concentration, even with normal blood glucose concentrations. These conditions include Fanconi syndrome, Wilson disease, hereditary glycosuria, and interstitial nephritis. However, these conditions are relatively rare, and the most common cause of elevated glucose concentration in the urine is elevated blood glucose levels.

Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
  • Increase: Adrenal disorders, central nervous system disorders, diabetes mellitus, eclampsia, Fanconi syndrome, glomerulonephritis, glucose administration, heavy metal poisoning, liver disease, intestinal hypermotility, infections, nephrosis, pregnancy, thyroid disorders, toxic renal tubular disease. Medications: Ammonium chloride, asparaginase, carbamazepine, corticosteroids, dextrothyroxine, indomethacin, isoniazid, lithium carbonate, nicotinic acid, phenothiazines, thiazide diuretics



Important Note

Laboratory test results are the most critical parameter for diagnosing and monitoring all pathological conditions. 70 to 80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased."

Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be analyzed based on each case and family history, clinical findings, and other laboratory tests and information. Your physician should explain the importance of your test results.

At Diagnostiki Athinon, we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and contact your doctor to ensure you receive the best possible medical care.

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