URL path: Index page // Lysozyme (Muramidase), Serum

Lysozyme (Muramidase), Serum

Serum lysozyme measurement is used, usually in conjunction with other laboratory tests, in the diagnosis of acute myelocytic leukemia or other leukemias, sarcoidosis, and tuberculosis.

More Information

Lysozyme, also known as muramidase, is an enzyme found in various bodily fluids, including blood serum. It plays a crucial role in the body's innate immune system as a natural antimicrobial agent. Lysozyme was first discovered in human tears by Alexander Fleming in 1922. Lysozyme is a small protein consisting of 129 amino acids.

Lysozyme is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. By breaking down this structure, lysozyme disrupts the bacterial cell wall, leading to the lysis and death of bacteria. This activity helps protect the body against bacterial infections.

While lysozyme is found in various bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk, it is also present in serum at lower concentrations. Serum lysozyme levels are influenced by various factors, including genetics, inflammation, and certain diseases. Besides its antimicrobial properties, lysozyme has other physiological roles. It acts as a digestive enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract, aiding in the breakdown of bacterial cell walls present in ingested food. Lysozyme also plays a role in tissue remodeling and repair, as well as the regulation of the gut microbiota.

Low levels of serum lysozyme may be associated with immunodeficiency conditions.

Serum lysozyme levels can increase in response to various factors and medical conditions.

  • Inflammatory conditions: Serum lysozyme levels can rise in response to inflammation. Inflammatory disorders such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) have been associated with increased serum lysozyme levels.
  • Infections: Certain bacterial infections can lead to an increase in serum lysozyme levels.
  • Cancers: Some cancers, particularly hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma, have been linked to elevated serum lysozyme levels. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well-defined, and the clinical significance of this elevation is still being investigated.
  • Other conditions: Serum lysozyme levels may also increase in certain renal disorders, such as chronic kidney disease. Additionally, conditions that involve tissue damage, such as myocardial infarction or severe burns, can cause a transient increase in serum lysozyme levels.

Elevated serum lysozyme levels alone are not diagnostic of a specific condition. They are typically considered in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain diseases.


Additional information
Share it