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Prostate Cancer, Genetic Testing

Prostate cancer is a malignancy that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. It is one of the most common cancers in men. Treatment options vary and may include monitoring, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the stage and characteristics of the cancer. The assessment of the Polygenic Risk Score for prostate cancer is based on examining 214 gene polymorphisms.

Genetic testing for prostate cancer is included along with 13 other diseases in the Genetic Screening for Endocrine and Genitourinary Diseases, Polygenic Risk Score, as well as in the Genetic Screening for Neoplasms and Precancerous Malformations, Polygenic Risk Score, along with 19 other diseases.

Causes and non-genetic risk factors

The incidence of prostate cancer is estimated at approximately 25 cases per 100.000 population. The causes of prostate cancer are not clear, although some factors have been identified that increase the risk of developing the disease. In addition to genetic factors, such as the presence of BRCA1/2 mutations or hereditary syndromes such as Lynch syndrome, environmental factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of prostate cancer. Among them:

  • It is more frequent after the age of 50
  • Ethnic origin is more common in men of African-American origin. In addition, the probabilities of being more aggressive are increased in them
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to certain chemical substances, such as Agent Orange
  • Chronic inflammation of the prostate
  • Viral infections such as herpes, cytomegalovirus, papilloma (HPV), and sexually transmitted bacterial infections can increase the risk in patients with a genetic predisposition

It is typical for prostate cancer not to present any symptoms in the initial stages of the disease. They are tumors that evolve slowly, and the symptoms appear in more advanced stages of the process. The most common symptoms are the following:

  • Difficulty in starting to urinate
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow
  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Persistent pain in the back, hips, or pelvis
  • Pain on ejaculation

These symptoms are common to other more frequent conditions, so it is essential to consult a medical specialist if they occur.


The risk of developing prostate cancer is fundamentally related to age, race, family history, and genetic predisposition of each individual. These factors are considered non-modifiable, and there are currently no measures to be taken to prevent it. However, some measures could reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  • Having a healthy weight
  • A healthy diet, with primary consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoiding foods rich in fats
  • Decrease in the consumption of dairy products. Studies have associated excess consumption of dairy products with an increased risk of prostate carcinoma

Prostate cancer screening programs are very effective in detecting prostate cancer. This, together with its slow evolution and the presence of characteristic symptoms, allows it to be a carcinoma with a good prognosis and a shallow mortality rate.

Additional information
Results Time4 - 5 Weeks
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