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Yeast-like Fungi, Molecular Detection MycoScreen™

Detection of yeast-like fungi with MycoScreen™ is designed for the detection and typing of fungal pathogens from the genera Candida, Malassezia, Saccharomyces, and Debaryomyces in material obtained from human biological specimens, catheter and endotracheal aspirates, and fungal cultures with the utilization of the Polymerase Chain Reaction method. The MycoScreen™ test includes the detection and identification of 14 different yeast-like fungi.

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Infections caused by yeast-like fungi (mycoses) have a wide range of clinical manifestations from local skin lesions, and mucous membranes of the urogenital, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts to fungemia and multiple organ damage with severe disease and possible death. Fungal diseases are widespread and are especially dangerous for premature infants, immunocompromised patients, and hematological cancer patients. The use of cytostatics, corticosteroids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and invasive diagnostic, and therapeutic procedures leads to an increase in mycoses incidences. The list of potential causative agents of mycoses includes about 400 species of fungi. The most common pathological processes are caused by yeast-like fungi of the genera Candida, Saccharomyces, Debaryomyces, and Malassezia.

Mycoses are divided into superficial (non-invasive) and invasive infections by their clinical manifestation.

Clinical manifestations of superficial mycoses depend on the localization of the fungal infection. Superficial mycoses manifest lesions of cutaneous structures and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, vagina, and intestines.

Invasive mycoses are a severe form of fungal infection that requires long-term systemic treatment. The pathogens penetrate the blood and lymph flow, causing candidemia, which spread throughout the body and affect the organs.

The main risk factors of invasive mycoses’ development include:

  • Presence of superficial (non-invasive) mycoses
  • Premature birth
  • Central venous catheter
  • Tracheal intubation
  • Drainages, catheters
  • Therapy with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, especially third-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems
  • Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
  • Surgical interventions on the abdominal organs, peritoneal dialysis
  • Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Pancreatitis
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  • Therapy with antacids and H2-blockers

The treatment of candidiasis is based on four main groups of antimycotics: echinocandins, azoles, polyenes, and fluorinated pyrimidines. Different types of fungi have different sensitivities to antimycotics.

Advantages of molecular diagnostics in comparison with standard methods for the diagnosis of mycoses include:

  • Possibility of species identification of microorganisms
  • Identification of difficult-to-culture microorganisms
  • High speed of the assay
  • Ηigh sensitivity and accurate determination of the causative agent
  • Possibility to study a wide range of biomaterials
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