The measurement of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) is used to assess the body's oxidative stress, assess the oxidative damage of proteins as well as to assess the risk of occurrence and progression of primary and secondary osteoporosis, and assess renal failure as well as the occurrence of atherosclerotic disease.
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were first described by Witko-Sarsat et al. In 1996 as a group of oxidized protein products containing di-tyrosines, which are formed during oxidative stress by plasma proteins and chlorinated oxidants. Very often AOPPs are transported by albumin in vivo. Advanced oxidation protein products have been identified as new indicators of oxidative protein damage, oxidative stress intensity, and inflammatory reactions. Significantly elevated concentrations of AOPP have been found in a variety of pathological conditions, including chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, rosacea, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Patients with the aforementioned pathological conditions often experience bone loss and an increased incidence of fractures, a condition that is defined as secondary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass with alterations in the micro-architecture of the bone, which can lead to fractures. The exact mechanisms of this condition remain unclear, but AOPPs are thought to play an important role in the development of secondary osteoporosis. AOPPs can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic and mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, high AOPP values are observed in postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis with several studies agreeing with the use of AOPP measurement as a unique indicator for predicting the progression of osteoporosis.
In addition, clinical studies have shown that serum AOPP levels are a strong prognostic factor for the progression of IgA nephropathy. In experimental models, a persistent increase in plasma AOPP is associated with increased urinary protein excretion, decreased creatinine clearance, excessive macrophage accumulation, and worsening glomerular sclerosis.
In addition, AOPPs are also implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. In fact, AOPPs have been identified as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal failure.
Finding high concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) requires special antioxidant therapy measures to address the adverse effects of their presence on the body's health.