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Neurotransmitter Profile

Neurotransmitters are chemical substances the nervous system uses to carry information from cell to cell. Neurotransmitters are essential factors in brain chemistry that help us think and understand the world around us. Their balance is vital to a person's emotional and mental well-being.

The neurotransmitter profile includes measuring the molecules of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, adrenaline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and glycine in a urine sample.

What diseases are associated with neurotransmitter imbalances?

Disorders in the balance of neurotransmitters are involved in various diseases and pathological conditions, such as:

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Hyperactivity
  • Aggressive behavior and irritability
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Panic attacks
  • Stress
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Depression and mood disorders
  • Fatigue
  • Amnesia and memory disorders
  • Insomnia and other sleep disorders
  • Low libido
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (neurosis)
  • Premenstrual syndrome
What does neurotransmitter testing include?

Adrenaline: Adrenaline, or epinephrine, is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It is released by the adrenal glands along with noradrenaline and is responsible for the "fight-or-flight" reaction. Adrenaline affects cardiovascular function and glucose metabolism. Unbalanced adrenaline levels can cause aggression, anger, adrenal exhaustion, weight gain, and stress.

Noradrenaline: Noradrenaline, or norepinephrine, acts as a stress hormone and neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Together with adrenaline, it is responsible for the "fight-or-flight" reaction, increasing glucose release and blood flow in the body. Noradrenaline is synthesized in the same biochemical pathway as dopamine. Unbalanced noradrenaline levels can cause aggression, stress, and depression.

Dopamine: Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter associated with the brain's pleasure center. It is released when the body experiences pleasant situations and seeks them. Dopamine is also involved in sensory integration, attention, sleep, learning, and motivation. It regulates the body's mood and mobility.

Serotonin: Serotonin is the neurotransmitter most associated with mood. Serotonin is derived from the amino acid tryptophan and is found mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. When it is at normal levels, it prevents the onset of depression and reduces the reaction to pain. An imbalance in serotonin levels can contribute to osteopenia and osteoporosis, digestion disorders, fatigue, low mood, hot flashes, and sleep disorders.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is essential for basic body functions and the regulation of other neurotransmitters. GABA stimulates relaxation and is an essential molecule for overall well-being. An imbalance in GABA levels can cause lethargy, nervousness, stress, depression, and insomnia.

Glutamic Acid: Glutamic acid is an essential mediator of stimulatory signals in the brain and is involved in many processes of normal brain function, including cognitive functions, memory, and learning.

Glycine: Glycine plays a dual role as a neurotransmitter and amino acid that is a building block for proteins. High glycine levels are clinically present in stress and may be related to B vitamin deficiencies and/or methylation processes. Glycine levels are low in diabetes, hypothyroidism, obesity, and after vigorous exercise. Also, low glycine levels may be associated with depression.

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