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Vitamin Comprehensive Profile

The Vitamin Comprehensive Profile includes testing of water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, and C as well as fat-soluble vitamins A (beta-carotene and retinol), D, E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol), and vitamin K1 and K2. It is an excellent tool for a quick and comprehensive assessment of the body's nutritional status. 

Who should do the Vitamin Comprehensive Profile?

Those who have symptoms, signs, or laboratory findings that indicate a deficiency of some vitamins

  • Disorders of the skin and mucous membranes, especially lesions in the corners of the mouth (angular cheilitis)
  • Redness of the face
  • Red or white pimples like those of acne
  • Hair loss, alopecia, brittle hair, and nails
  • Nervous system disorders (hallucinations, numbness, irritability, dementia, amnesia)
  • Anemia, increase in homocysteine

Those at risk for vitamin deficiency

  • Gastrointestinal surgeries
  • Celiac disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Unbalanced diet
  • Extreme diets
  • Pregnancy, lactation
  • Intense physical exercise

Those who use systematic dietary supplements

More information

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) has a wide range of functions, including many metabolic reactions and the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the "energy currency" for every cell type throughout the body. Vitamin B1 deficiencies can occur in people with gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, or irritable bowel syndrome.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is essential for energy production, enzyme function, and the normal synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids.

Vitamin B3 (niacin), like all B-complex vitamins, plays a role in the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose, in the metabolism of fats and proteins, and helps maintain the proper functioning of the nervous system. Niacin also helps synthesize sex hormones and stress-related hormones and improves cholesterol levels.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is so named because it is found almost everywhere in various foods. It is essential for cholesterol synthesis, the production of red blood cells, the maintenance of a healthy digestive system, and the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal) is involved in synthesizing serotonin and norepinephrine, chemicals that transmit signals to the brain (neurotransmitters). It is also involved in forming myelin, a fatty substance that forms the protective layer around nerve cells. Vitamin B6 deficiencies can occur in people with gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, or irritable bowel syndrome.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid) is a vitamin that plays a vital role in DNA synthesis and the production of red blood cells. Folic acid is absorbed through the small intestine and stored in the liver. It must be taken through the diet, as the body cannot synthesize it.

Vitamin B7 (biotin) is essential for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids while also helping to stabilize blood sugar. Its deficiency is associated with hair loss, brittle nails, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and neurological symptoms. It is found in peanuts, green leafy vegetables, egg yolk, and liver.

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) plays a vital role in the normal function of the central nervous system, in the formation of red blood cells, and metabolism. Vitamin B12 deficiencies can occur in people with gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, or irritable bowel syndrome, as well as stomach disorders.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) plays an essential role in the development and repair of body tissues, including the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, wound healing, and the formation of fibrous tissue and is involved in the formation of skin, tendons, ligaments, and vessels.

Beta-carotene is a fat-soluble micronutrient that is a precursor to vitamin A. Therefore, a deficiency or decrease in beta-carotene can lead to vitamin A deficiency. Beta-carotene is the form of vitamin A derived from plant sources (green or orange vegetables and fruits). The body converts β-carotene to vitamin A if the thyroid gland functions normally and the patient does not have diabetes.

Vitamin A is a very important ingredient. It is essential for good vision, mucosal and skin health, production of sperm and eggs, immune system function, growth, cell division, bone metabolism, antioxidant defense, and cancer prevention. Symptoms and signs of vitamin A deficiency include difficulty seeing, especially at night, bruising of the skin, acne and dry skin, decreased resistance to disease, and poor growth. Preformed vitamin A is found mainly in meat, eggs, and fish.

Vitamin D can be classified into two families, ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3), known collectively as calciferol. Cholecalciferol is produced in the skin when exposed to sunlight. The primary function of vitamin D in the body is related to the absorption, transport, storage, and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D plays a vital role in the function of the immune system and is essential for maintaining good health. An excellent source of vitamin D is sun exposure. Other sources of vitamin D include butter, eggs, milk, cod liver oil, and fish.

Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant for tissues, helping to neutralize free radicals and protect cells. It is mainly found in two forms: the most active alpha-tocopherol, which is found in the European diet, where the main dietary sources are olive oil and sunflower oil, and gamma-tocopherol, which is the most common form in the American diet due to the higher intake of soybean oil and corn oil.

Vitamin K is crucial in synthesizing blood coagulation factors and bones, cartilage, and blood vessel proteins. The most important source of vitamin K is vitamin K1 (phylloquinone or phytomenadione), which comes from green leafy vegetables and vegetable oils, and vitamin K2 (menaquinone), which comes from the function of the intestinal microbiome. Synthetic vitamin K3 (menadione) has toxic effects.

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