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Phosphatidic Acid Antibodies (aPA), IgM

The measurement of specific IgM antibodies against phosphatidic acid in serum is used as a complementary test in the diagnostic approach of antiphospholipid syndrome.

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Antibodies against phosphatidic acid belong to the group of antiphospholipid antibodies. Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies against various phospholipids, whose increased concentration is indicative of antiphospholipid syndrome. Phosphatidic acid is part of most phospholipids that form the biological membranes. Phosphatidic acid is positively charged and consists of a glycerol attached to a saturated fatty acid on carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid on carbon-2 and a phosphate group on carbon-3. Antibodies against phosphatidic acid do not belong to the laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome and are therefore used only as an indication when the main diagnostic antibodies are absent.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, Hughes syndrome) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis, pregnancy complications as well as some laboratory abnormalities. The diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome requires the presence of at least one clinical and one laboratory criterion.

Clinical criteria include vascular thrombosis (arterial or venous or small vessel thrombosis in any organ or tissue) and pregnancy morbidity (unexplained fetal death over 10 weeks, preterm labor, severe preeclampsia, or preeclampsia). Other clinical manifestations including heart valve disease, reticular pellucida, thrombocytopenia, nephropathy and neurological symptoms often associated with antiphospholipid syndrome are not included in the diagnostic criteria.

Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome are the presence of anticoagulant lupus, the presence of IgG and / or IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and the presence of IgG and / or IgM antibodies against β2 glycoprotein I (β2 GPI). All antibodies must be present in at least 2 separate tests and the tests should be conducted at least 12 weeks apart. IgA antibodies against cardiolipin and β2 glycoprotein I are not part of the laboratory criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome.

Antiphospholipid syndrome can be classified as primary (when not associated with obvious underlying disease) or secondary (when associated with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus).

Possible Interpretation of Pathological Values

Increase: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (Hughes Syndrome), Behcet’s disease, cerebral palsy, Huntington, diabetic muscle infarction, epilepsy, essential thrombocythemia, giant cell arteritis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), IVF failure embryo, polymyalgia rheumatica, preeclampsia, renal insufficiency graft, obstructive retinal vasculopathy, syphilis, temporal arteritis, venous thrombosis, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Medications: Minocycline





Important Note

Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".

Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.

At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.

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