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Polyoma Virus SV40 (Simian Virus 40), Molecular Detection

Molecular control for SV40 Multi Virus is used for the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with SV40 infections.

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Polyoma viruses are DNA viruses (double stranded DNA, ~ 5,000 base pairs, circular genome), are small (40-50 nm in diameter), have a microscopic structure and are not surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope. They are potentially oncogenic (ie, tumor-causing) and often persist causing latent infections in the host without causing obvious disease but can cause tumors to appear in a host of a different species or in a host with an ineffective immune system. The name Polyoma refers to the ability of viruses to create multiple (-oma) tumors.

The most important in terms of pathogenicity to human Polyoma viruses are:

  • JC virus that can infect the respiratory system, kidneys, brain (can sometimes cause fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
  • BK virus that causes a mild respiratory infection and can affect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplant patients. Both viruses are widespread: about 80% of the US adult population has antibodies against JC and BK
  • SV40 virus which is not generally considered to be pathogenic to humans but has been found in various types of tumors.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a member of the family Polyomaviridae and infects several species of monkeys, but the infection is mainly asymptomatic. It was discovered in the early 1960s as a transfection into Rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures used in the production of polio vaccines. The virus consists of an envelope-free virus and contains a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule of approximately 5 kb (thousands of bases). The genome is protected within a twenty-sided protein structure consisting of 3 structural proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. The viral genome contains one primary control region (NCCR) and another transcriptional control region. It also contains a region encoding the T protein that promotes viral DNA replication in host cells and their packaging in viral capsids.

Several studies have shown that SV40 can cause hamster tumors. Concerns have been raised about polio vaccine infections made before 1963 in that they could have adverse effects on human health. SV40 is not generally considered to be pathogenic to humans, but it has been found in various types of tumors, including brain tumors, bone tumors, mesotheliomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, suggesting that it may induce various transformations and oncogenes, under certain conditions.



Important Note

Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".

Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.

At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.

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