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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Autoimmunity Panel

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder caused by pancreatic beta-cells destruction. Anti-pancreatic antibodies are the witness of beta-cell destruction, and their dosage is mainly used for etiological diagnosis. Patients with T1DM are at increased risk of developing other autoimmune reactions, which may involve other organs, resulting in organ-specific autoimmune disease. The most frequently encountered are autoimmune thyroid disease, followed by celiac and gastric disease and other rare autoimmune diseases.

Diabetes autoantibodies assessment is helpful in identifying and managing patients at risk for the development of type 1 diabetes. Published positivity rates for diabetes autoantibodies in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients listed below are based on the combined analysis of GAD-65, ICA (Islet Cell Antibodies), insulin antibodies, and ZnT8 antibodies. The combined analysis has a 98% autoimmunity detection rate, with 1.8% of diabetic individuals remaining autoantibody negative. Fewer than 3% of type 2 diabetics have positive antibodies.

The positive rate in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients:

  • GAD-65 antibodies = 68% positive
  • ICA antibodies = 72% positive
  • Insulin antibodies = 55% positive
  • ZnT8 antibodies = 63% positive

An increase in the number of positive antibodies is associated with a higher likelihood of type 1 diabetes.

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