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Selectin E (Synonyms: Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 [ELAM-1], E-selectin, CD62E, LECAM-2) belongs to the family of adhesion molecules, the Selectins. Together with LECAM-1 (Selectin L) and GMP-140 (Selectin P), Selectin E mediates the initial interactions of leukocytes and platelets with endothelial cells. Selectins guide non-activated polymorphonuclear cells to areas of inflammation, initially establishing loose contacts with the endothelial layer. Selectin E, together with GMP-140, is expressed on endothelial cells that are activated by cytokines and contribute to the adhesion of leukocytes onto the endothelium. This initial process of binding is a prerequisite for the activation of immune system cells through different inflammatory mediators. Unlike GMP-140, Selectin E is maximally expressed 2-4 hours after cell activation. Within the next 24-48 hours Selectin E is again removed from the cytoplasmic membrane entering the bloodstream. The circulating soluble form of this Selectin generates chemotactic signals in neutrophils and additionally activates integrins. Determination of Selectin E could provide detailed insights into pathological modifications during various diseases:

  • Allergic reactions: The transient entry of neutrophils into the respiratory tract due to an inflammatory response is mainly mediated by Selectin E. In addition, Selectin E may be of particular importance during the initiation phase of allergic contact dermatitis.
  • Ocular diseases: The presence of Selectin E in the retinal vascular endothelium suggests an important role for this Selectin in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated eye diseases.
  • Septic shock: Selectin E appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure during septic shock.
  • Vascular infection and inflammation: Soluble Selectin E levels in patients with recent onset giant cell arteritis or polyarteritis nodosa are significantly higher than in normal controls.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease: Selectin E is expressed in intestinal endothelial cells, in association with inflammation.
  • Transplantation: Increased expression of Selectin E on endothelial cells is found in graft-versus-host disease.

Important Note

The measurement of Selectin E is only offered for research purposes in clinical studies and experimental protocols.

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