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Glioma, Genetic Testing

Glioma is a broad term that includes tumors that originate from glial cells in the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant and cause symptoms based on location and size. Treatment options vary and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type and degree of glioma. The assessment of the Polygenic Risk Score for glioma is based on the examination of 9 gene polymorphisms.

Genetic testing for glioma is included along with 15 other diseases in the Genetic Screening for Nervous System Diseases, Polygenic Risk Score, and Genetic Screening for Neoplasms and Precancerous Malformations, Polygenic Risk Score, along with 19 other diseases.

Causes and non-genetic risk factors

As with most brain tumors, the exact cause of the development of gliomas is unknown, although it is postulated that they are the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In addition, risk factors have been identified that may contribute to their occurrence:

  • Glioma is more frequently diagnosed after the age of 45, although it can occur at any age. Certain types of gliomas, such as ependymomas, are more common in children and young adults.
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation. This is the most critical risk factor in the development of gliomas. People exposed to this type of radiation (X-rays, radiotherapy for cancer, radiation caused by atomic bombs, etc.) have a higher risk of suffering from this type of tumor.
  • Syndromes that increase the predisposition to develop tumors, such as Lynch syndrome or Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

The symptoms of glioma vary according to its location and the type of tumor, although the most common are the following:

  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Confusion or decreased brain function
  • Memory loss
  • Personality changes
  • Balance problems
  • Seizures
  • Slurred speech
  • Vision problems

Symptoms may worsen or change as the tumor grows and compresses different parts of the brain, increasing swelling and pressure in the skull. If the tumor develops in the spinal cord, it can cause pain, weakness, and numbness in the extremities.


There is no total preventive measure for the development of gliomas; however, in some cases, avoiding modifiable risk factors may help to reduce the risk. At the moment, the only identified risk factor associated with the development of these tumors is exposure to ionizing radiation.

Exposure to this type of radiation can occur by different routes:

  • Internal exposure occurs when the radionuclide is inhaled, ingested, or injected.
  • External exposure occurs when the radioactive material is present in the environment.

The people most exposed to this type of radiation are astronauts (from cosmic radiation), X-ray medical personnel, researchers, and radioactive facility personnel. In addition, additional exposures may be received at each X-ray and nuclear medicine examination.

Additional information
Results Time4 - 5 Weeks
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