Antibody measurement against human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 and type 2 is used to diagnose infection by these viruses.
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus type1 (HTLV-1), a type C retrovirus, is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other demyelinating and neoplastic conditions. Recently, HTLV-1 infection has been shown to be associated with chronic T-cell and B-cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, some cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, polymyositis, arthritis, Kaposi's sarcoma, uveitis, and mycosis fungoides. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 is spread around the world, in contrast to human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), which is a New World virus most commonly found among Americans in North, Central, and South America. HTLV-2 was originally isolated from a patient with hairy T-cell leukemia, but it has not been clearly shown to be pathogenic. Recent findings suggest that HTLV-2 may be associated with other leukemias and lymphomas. A high rate of HTLV-2 seropositive has been observed among intravenous drug users.
Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infect CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, intravenous drug use, transfusions of infected blood, through the placenta from mother to fetus, and through breast milk.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.