Diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition in which blood glucose levels rise, either due to insufficient insulin production or due to decreased sensitivity to circulating insulin. Neglected or inadequately monitored diabetes can lead to symptoms such as increased thirst (polydipsia), increased hunger (polyphagia), and frequent urination (polyuria). The metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, directly or indirectly leads to the production of glucose. Glucose is essential for providing energy to every cell in the body. If glucose levels become too high, then they become toxic to the brain and other organs of the body. Failure to maintain normal glucose control can lead to a number of disorders as well as premature aging.
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, and genetic predisposition are the most important factors in the onset of diabetes mellitus.